## Homework 3

In this homework, you are going to implement the Newton method
to find the shortest periodic orbit of the Rössler system.
This is a rather long exercise, and you may find it helpful to
watch the
walkthrough video
before beginning.
You can download the template program for homework from
here (right click, "save as").

#### Q3.1 \(\quad\) Shortest periodic orbit of the Rössler system

In Homework 2, you computed the Jacobian for a periodic orbit in order to compute its Floquet multipliers. In this exercise, we will need to call the Jacobian \(J^t(x)\) for the Newton method. In \( \mbox{Rossler.py} \) you will find a function**Jacobian(ssp, t)**which

**J = None**by default. Construct this function such that it inputs an initial point \(x\) and time \(t\) and returns the Jacobian matrix \(J^t(x)\) for a trajectory \(f^t(x)\), you may copy and paste the appropriate code block from

**CycleStability.py**.

Next, open

**Newton.py**and set

**thetaPoincare**to \[ \theta = 0 \] to set the angle between your Poincaré section hyperplane and the x-axis. Read through the code and complete lines where you see the comment \( \mbox{#COMPLETE THIS LINE} \), replacing \( \mbox{None}\) variables. You will see that we have referred to \( \mbox{Poincare.py} \), \( \mbox{Stability.py} \), and \( \mbox{CycleStability.py} \) as hints, this is because most of these completions are repetitions of what you have done in the first two homework assignments with slight modifications.

New content of this exercise is the implementation of the Newton method. This procedure is in the \( \mbox{while} \) loop which reads: \[ \mbox{while np.max(np.abs(error)) > tol:} \] In this loop, you will iterate the Newton method until you meet the numerical tolerance, \( \mbox{tol = 1e-9} \). Key element of this implementation is the construction of the matrix which we named \( \mbox{Newton} \). Complete three lines which sets elements of \( \mbox{Newton} \) according to \[ N = \left( \begin{array}{c:c} 1 - J^t(x) & - v(f^t(x)) \\ \hdashline \hat{n} & 0 \end{array}\right) \, . \] This is a \(4 \times 4\) matrix where upper-left block is \(3 \times 3\), upper right block is \(3 \times 1\), lower left block is \(1 \times 3\) and lower right is \(1 \times 1\).

After completing the Newton matrix, run

**Newton.py**. The script should produce four figures, final one (\( \mbox{Figure 4} \)) being the shortest periodic orbit that you have just found. Make sure that the orbit closes onto itself after one period. On the terminal, the program must print the coordinates of the periodic orbit where it intersects your Poincaré section: \[ \mbox{'Shortest peridoic orbit is at: ', x, y, z} \] Copy these \((x,y,z)\) values into the 3 boxes below. Use at least \(4\) decimal places in your answer.

x:

y:

z:

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